Soviet anti aircraft fire became an almost assured death sentence to German pilots during the Russian campaign. Bomber crews were outfitted with extra protection to enhance survivability. Some M35 style helmets & more commonly M40 helmets were produced and altered allowing for use of headphones. In terms of the Allied effort using the M3 Armored helmet for bomber crews, the Luftwaffe Flak was the best German equivalent and almost exclusively used on the Eastern Front. This reproduction steel helmet has a liner and fits standard size 7-1/2 on average.